Ella Fitzgerald was born on April the 25th in 1917 in Newport News. She is one of the most important jazz singers. She won many awards, including 13 Grammy Awards.

She began singing at the age of 16 years and won a competition for amateur singers at the Apollo in Harlem, in 1934. This will be the first of a series of sucesses. When her mother dies, she is an orphan.

She began a solo career in 1941. At the first she sang only the swing but she is the queen of scat, and plays the blues and gospel.

Her nickname is « the First Lady of song » because she was remarkable for the purity of her voice and her ability to improvise, especially scat. The scat is a form of verbal improvisation where onomatopeia is used rather than words. She realizes her most famous improvisation during a concert in Berlin singing « Mack the Knife » in 1960. This is one of the best sucesses of Ella Fitzgerald, with « Mr Paganini » and « How high the moon ».

She married twice: once with Benny Kornegay, but the marriage was annulled, and a second time with Ray Brown.

She died on June the 1st in 1996 in Beverly Hills because of diabetes.
The singer France Gall sang a song in her honor « Ella, elle l’a » in the 1980s.

Martin Luther King

Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights in the United States and around the world, using nonviolent methods following the teachings of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. King has become a national icon in the history of modern American liberalism. A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. King’s efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered his « I Have a Dream » speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history. In 1964, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other nonviolent means. By the time of his death in 1968, he had refocused his efforts on ending poverty and stopping the Vietnam War. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. He was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 and Congressional Gold Medal in 2004; Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986.

“I Have A Dream” :

« I Have a Dream » is a 17-minute public speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered on August 28, 1963, in which he called for racial equality and an end to discrimination. The speech, from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, was a defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. Delivered to over 200,000 civil rights supporters, the speech was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century by a 1999 poll of scholars of public address. According to U.S. Representative John Lewis, who also spoke that day as the President of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, « Dr. King had the power, the ability, and the capacity to transform those steps on the Lincoln Memorial into a monumental area that will forever be recognized. By speaking the way he did, he educated, he inspired, he informed not just the people there, but people throughout America and unborn generations. » At the end of the speech, King departed from his prepared text for a partly improvised peroration on the theme of « I have a dream ».
Assassination :

On March 29, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of the black sanitary public works employees, represented by AFSCME Local 1733, who had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. In one incident, black street repairmen received pay for two hours when they were sent home because of bad weather, but white employees were paid for the full day.
On April 3, King addressed a rally and delivered his « I’ve Been to the Mountaintop » address at Mason Temple, the world headquarters of the Church of God in Christ. King’s flight to Memphis had been delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. In the close of the last speech of his career, in reference to the bomb threat, King said the following:
And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers? Well, I don’t know what will happen now. We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn’t matter with me now. Because I’ve been to the mountaintop. And I don’t mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land. So I’m happy, tonight. I’m not worried about anything. I’m not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.
King was booked in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel, owned by Walter Bailey, in Memphis. The Reverend Ralph Abernathy, King’s close friend and colleague who was present at the assassination, testified under oath to the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations that King and his entourage stayed at room 306 at the Lorraine Motel so often it was known as the « King-Abernathy suite. »
According to Jesse Jackson, who was present, King’s last words on the balcony prior to his assassination were spoken to musician Ben Branch, who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was attending: « Ben, make sure you play ‘Take My Hand, Precious Lord’ in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty. »
Then, at 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, a shot rang out as King stood on the motel’s second floor balcony. The bullet entered through his right cheek, smashing his jaw, then traveled down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder. Abernathy heard the shot from inside the motel room and ran to the balcony to find King on the floor. The events following the shooting have been disputed, as some people have accused Jackson of exaggerating his response.
After emergency chest surgery, King was pronounced dead at St. Joseph’s Hospital at 7:05 p.m. According to biographer Taylor Branch, King’s autopsy revealed that though only 39 years old, he had the heart of a 60-year-old man, perhaps a result of the stress of 13 years in the civil rights movement.
The assassination led to a nationwide wave of race riots in Washington D.C., Chicago, Baltimore, Louisville, Kentucky, Kansas City, and dozens of other cities. Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy was on his way to Indianapolis for a campaign rally when he was informed of King’s death. He gave a short speech to the gathering of supporters informing them of the tragedy and urging them to continue King’s ideal of non-violence.James Farmer, Jr. and other civil rights leaders also called for non-violent action, while the more militant Stokely Carmichael called for a more forceful response.
President Lyndon B. Johnson declared April 7 a national day of mourning for the civil rights leader. Vice-President Hubert Humphrey attended King’s funeral on behalf of the President, as there were fears that Johnson’s presence might incite protests and perhaps violence.
At his widow’s request, King’s last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church was played at the funeral,a recording of his « Drum Major » sermon, given on February 4, 1968. In that sermon, King made a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to « feed the hungry », « clothe the naked », « be right on the [Vietnam] war question », and « love and serve humanity ».[134] His good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn, « Take My Hand, Precious Lord », at the funeral.[135]
The city of Memphis quickly settled the strike on terms favorable to the sanitation workers.
Two months after King’s death, escaped convict James Earl Ray was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd on his way to white-ruled Rhodesia.[138] Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King’s murder. He confessed to the assassination on March 10, 1969, though he recanted this confession three days later. On the advice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray pleaded guilty to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. Ray was sentenced to a 99-year prison term.Ray fired Foreman as his attorney, from then on derisively calling him « Percy Fourflusher ». He claimed a man he met in Montreal, Quebec, with the alias « Raoul » was involved and that the assassination was the result of a conspiracy. He spent the remainder of his life attempting, unsuccessfully, to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had. On June 10, 1977, shortly after Ray had testified to the House Select Committee on Assassinations that he did not shoot King, he and six other convicts escaped from Brushy Mountain State Penitentiary in Petros, Tennessee. They were recaptured on June 13 and returned to prison.


Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African-American civil rights activist. She collaborated with Organized and civil rights leaders, Including boycott leader Martin Luther King to launch helping him to prominence in the national civil rights movement. Parks’ act of defiance Became year major symbol of the modern Civil Rights Movement and she became year international icon of resistance to racial segregation. She became famous on December 1, 1955, in Montgomery because she refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake’s who asked her to give her seat to white man. Parks action was not the first kind of its to impact the civil rights issue. She was arrested, tried and convicted of public disorder and breach of local laws. She joined the lawyer Edgar Nixon, a member of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. Although furious with the treatment of Mrs. Parks, he immediately sees the benefit of symbolic battle to fight. He called a white lawyer, Clifford Durr, who agrees to challenge the segregation law on which Rosa Parks is the victim. The following night, fifty leaders of the African American community, led by a young minister at that time little known Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., meet in the Baptist Church Dexter Avenue to discuss the actions needed to following the arrest of Rosa Parks. They founded the Montgomery Improvement Association, which they elected King as president. He popularized the theories of nonviolence and civil disobedience. The movement has three immediate demands:
1. that blacks and whites could sit wherever they want on the bus;
2. that drivers are more courteous toward all people;
3. that black drivers be hired.
35,000 leaflets were distributed to invite blacks to no longer use the bus. The slogan is taken on Monday by The Montgomery Advertiser, the local black newspaper. It is renewed after a meeting at the church. This is the beginning of the Montgomery bus boycott. The boycott during 381days. Meanwhile most of them walked on foot, taxis driven by blacks make trips to the bus fare . Some whites joined them, sometimes by ideology, sometimes simply because they need their black employees come to work.Violent acts are perpetrated, including the dynamiting of homes of Martin Luther King and lawyer Edgar Nixon. True to its strategy, King asked not to respond to these acts. This movement causes many other protests against segregation led the United States. Finally November 13, 1956, the Supreme Court breaks the segregation laws on buses, declaring them unconstitutional.
Rosa Parks lived in Detroit until his death October 24, 2005. Since 2004, she suffered from dementia.After his death, the entire political class honored him. President George W. Bush honored his memory in a televised speech, and his body remained exposed two days in the Capitol rotunda for a public tribute. Privilege usually reserved for politicians and soldiers, Rosa Parks was the 31st person after former President Ronald Reagan in June 2004 and the first woman to receive this honor .

Street art is art, specifically visual art, developed in public spaces  that is, « in the streets »  though the term usually refers to unsanctioned art, as opposed to government sponsored initiatives. The term can include traditional graffiti artwork, sculpture, stencil graffiti, sticker art, wheatpasting and street poster art, video projection, art intervention, guerrilla art, and street installations. Typically, the term street art or the more specific post-graffiti is used to distinguish contemporary public-space artwork from territorial graffiti, vandalism, and corporate art.
Artists have challenged art by situating it in non-art contexts. ‘Street’ artists do not aspire to change the definition of an artwork, but rather to question the existing environment with its own language. They attempt to have their work communicate with everyday people about socially relevant themes in ways that are informed by esthetic values without being imprisoned by them. John Fekner defines street art as “all art on the street that’s not graffiti.”

Before Street art emerged there was another art movement called Land art. It was before Internet and before the end of USSR. But after the World War A couple of « Land artists » called Christo and Jeanne-Claude started making illegal art in the street of Paris in 1962 to protest against the Berlin Wall. In 1972, and 1976 they made Land art in the desert of California, building a very long fence. In 1985, they made a huge Land Art work in Paris. They wrapped the oldest bridge of the city with polyamide fabric. They had to negotiate for years to have the permission of doing it. So it was official but it was controversial. Another artist, Richard Serra, put a big wall made of steel in Chicago. It was official but a lot of people hated it and it was removed after a trial. The work of a steet artist like JR is ephemeral so it does not have the same problem.
After the Berlin wall collapsed, a man called Shepard Fairey started gluing images of a dead French wrestler called André the Giant in California. It was a phenomenon. Fairey opened a web site were he just said it was phenomenology. It was so absurd people could not stop talking about it. Stickers were made of the image of the dead wrestler. It was considered « cool » by some skateboarders.
In 1999, in Seattle, took place a WTO (World Trade Organisation) summit. There took place big demonstrations. Others summits took place in Prague and in Genoa. The youth that demonstrated during this summit used « Absurd Propaganda », « culture jamming » and other artistic techniques to « reclaim the streets ». After the president Georges W. Bush was elected and 9/11, the absurd propaganda seemed to have a political meaning. So, critics came to the idea to call that phenomenon artivism. Something part art and part activism.

The Black Eyed Peas.

The Black Eyed Peas are a American hip hop group (originally an alternative hip hop group, they have since added R&B, dance, hip pop, electro and techno influences), formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1995. The group consists of rappers will.i.am, apl.de.ap, and Taboo, and singer Fergie. Since the release of their third album Elephunk in 2003, the group has sold an estimated 56 million records worldwide. Their first worldwide song was « Where Is the Love? » in 2003, which topped 13 charts worldwide. Another single was the European hit « Shut Up ». Their next album Monkey Business, was a worldwide success, certified 4× Platinum in the U.S., and spawning two singles, « My Humps » and « Don’t Phunk with My Heart ».

In 2009, the group became one of only 11 artists to have simultaneously held the No. 1 and No. 2 spots on the Billboard Hot 100, with their singles « Boom Boom Pow » and « I Gotta Feeling »; which topped the chart for an unprecedented 26 consecutive weeks in 2009. The album later produced a third Hot 100 number-one placement with « Imma Be », making the group one of few to ever place three number one singles on the chart from the same album before being followed with « Rock That Body » and « Meet Me Halfway » which managed to peak in the Top 10 of Hot 100. « I Gotta Feeling » became the first single to sell more than 1 million downloads in the United Kingdom. The Black Eyed Peas were ranked 12th on the Billboard’s Decade-End Chart Artist of the Decade, and 7th in the Hot 100 Artists of the Decade.On the 52nd Grammy Awards ceremony, which held in January, 2010 they won 3 awards out of 6 nominations.

In November 2010, they released the album The Beginning. In February 2011, the group performed at the Super Bowl XLV halftime show. The album’s first two singles « The Time (Dirty Bit) » and « Just Can’t Get Enough » became international hits and topped the charts in many countries. In July 2011, during their promotional tour the group announced that they are taking a break and have denied rumors that the band has broken up.


1.history and geography

The maps

Geography :
Mauritius is an island with surface area of 720 square miles, situated just above the Tropic of Capricorn, in the south of Indian Ocean. Being of a volcanic origin, Mauritius has a central plateau, which is about 400 meters above sea level. Mountains scattered throughout the island, tropical forests and plants are other feathers that add to the natural beauty of the island. With more than 90 miles of white sandy beaches and the transparent lagoon are protected from the open sea by the world’s third largest coral reef, which almost surrounds the island.
Discovered by Arab sailors in 1505 then the Portuguese in 1507 they named the island with a Portuguese name ‘Cirne’ and they stayed a long time because of the presence of the DODO, a flightless bird which was found in great numbers at that time.Mauritius was subsequently held by the Dutch in 1598 by Admiral Wybrand Van Warwyck who landed at Grand port,He named the island « Mauritius », in honour of Prince Maurits van Nassau and they abandoned Mauritius in 1710. They are remembered for the introduction of sugar-cane, domestic animals, and deer. French took control of Mauritius in 1715and renamed it Isle of France,The 1735 arrival of French governor Mahé de La Bourdonnais coincided with development of a prosperous economy based on sugar production and British before independence was attained in 1968 France, which already controlled neighboring Île Bourbon (now Réunion), took control of Mauritius in 1715 and later renamed it Île de France
(literally, Island of France).
From 1767 to 1810, except for a brief period during the French Revolution when the inhabitants set up a government virtually independent of France, the island was controlled by officials appointed by the French government.
A few years later, in 1835, the British abolished slavery – slaves at the time came from Madagascar, Senegal and Mozambique mainly – and this led to the importation of Indian indentured labourers to work in the sugar cane fields. They eventually settled in Mauritius and their descendants constitute nowadays the majority of the population.Rapid development of the infrastructure continued. Free primary education was given to the population so that local civil servants could be trained to run the affairs of the country.
Mauritius achieved independence on 12 March 1968 and adopted a constitution based on the British parliamentary system. The first post-independence years were difficult but after over 15 years of planning and hard work, achieved economic and political stability. Mauritius changed its status to that of a Republic on 12 March 1992.
The Mauritian Constition is based on the Westminister model. Political power is vested in the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. Elections are held every five years.
The DODO Bird

The Dodo were huge birds of unknown species that existed only on the island of Mauritius.
Those birds had no experience of any types of predators before the arrival of settlers in the island. They were passive creatures even when approached by human visitors for the first time. So it was with lack of fears and child-like innocence that those birds greeted the first settlers, the Dutch, in 1598.
The story of the Dodo is indeed a tragic one. Firstly, human visitors, mainly the Dutch, used to kill them for food. Those that survived became prey to animals such as pigs, rats and monkeys that had been introduced into the island by sailors. By the year 1681 the last Dodo had died.
Hindus make up 52%, Roman Catholic 27.5%, other Christians 8.6%, Muslims 16.6% and non-religious 0.4% while other religions up to 2.5%, and an additional 0.3% didn’t specify their religious beliefs.
Most Franco-Mauritians and Mauritian Creoles are Christian. The Hindu population and most of the Muslim population are of South Asian origins. However, many Mauritians are of mixed descent, due to the fact that many of the slaves were mixed up causing many ‘mixed races’. These languages are still preserved through the existence of different socio-cultural organizations and with the school systems obliging primary school students to study anoriental language. A minority of people are of Chinese descent, many of whom have embraced Christianity, following mainly Roman Catholicism. Some follow Buddhism and Confucian traditions

The mauritians have diffirent religion but they forme one nation and one people. They love their island and they are proud of their nationality. The main characteristiques of the mauritians are that they are very Warm and welcoming. the solidarity is very important for them.No matter religion or color of skin, they love each other and if mutual aid between them. As it’s says in the national song of mauritius.

3.Mauritius pleasure island, welcome to paradise
Mauritius is one of the world’s top luxury tourism destinations. It possesses a wide range of natural and man-made attractions, enjoys a sub-tropical climate with clear warm sea waters, attractive beaches, tropical fauna and flora complemented by a multi-ethnic and cultural population that is friendly and welcoming. These tourism assets are its main strength, especially since they are backed up by well-designed and run hotels, and reliable and operational services and infrastructures. Mauritius received the World Leading island Destination award for the third time and World’s Best Beach at the World Travel Awards in January 2012. Mauritius has also one of the highest rates of returning tourism visitors in the world.
Recreational activities in Mauritius are varied. Water sports are facilitated as the island is surrounded with coral reef, providing relatively shallow and calm water. Activities such as deep-sea fishing, surfing, windsurfing, water-skiing, yachting and submarine rides are available. Land-based leisure activities include golf, tennis, skiing, sky diving, deer hunting, quad (ATV) riding, mountain biking, abseiling, zip lining, horse riding and trekking.

Slaves singing and dancing the Sega :
As far back as 1768, travellers to Mauritius were bringing back tales of slaves’ singing and dancing which seemed to their entranced eyes so different and special.
The sega was created by the slaves who had a passion for music and of the soft harmony of unknown instruments to match songs with every present love themes. Some explorers said that they had all heard the music born of African souls soothed in their lost homelands on rapid drumbeats and pounding rhythms. African souls now caught in an island’s fragrance and soft beauty. The dancing is the body language of slaves forgetting, leaving pain and sorrow behind at the end of a hard day’s work. Le Morne beach, on the south west of the island is linked to the history of sega. In its legend, the beach is moonlit and cool, a fire burns glowing over the faces, hiding the flaws of the shacks nearby. The dancers wait and watch as the musicians heat the ravane. Maybe some landlords have brought over a few friends from overseas. They too waited to watch. They may even, if they have thought to bring and offer a few rhum caskets, hear their praises being sung in Creole, raucous French cooked in African spices. The songs come straight from the singer’s heart. They were in these days, hardly ever rehearsed.The dance itself is the rhythmic swaying of the hips to the pulsating rhythm of the Ravane. It starts with a gentle swaying, to a slow and solemn tune, which gradually rises, consuming the dancers and setting their bodies jerking, stretching and swaying with animated movements to keep pace with the ever-increasing tempo.
Today in Mauritius, sega has beome very famous and the mauritius keep preserving the origin of the sega and add their originality to their song but the sega is still rythmic and it’s always a body language

some famous singer sing the story of Mauritius and the slaves. They express their emotion and their pain with which the Mauritians got their origin and their culture and some talk about love and joy which represent our small island where there is solidarity between everybody.
The cuisine of Mauritius is a blend of Indian, African, Chinese and European influences. It is common for a combination of cuisines to form part of the same meal.
The production of rhum, which is made from sugar cane, is widespread on the island. Sugarcane was first introduced to Mauritius by the Dutch in 1638. The Dutch mainly cultivated sugarcane for the production of « arrack », a precursor to rhum. However, it was during the French and British administrations that sugar production was fully exploited. Pierre Charles François Harel was the first to propose the concept of local distillation of rhum in Mauritius, in 1850. Beer is also produced on the Island, by the Phoenix Brewery.

Mary Celeste

The Mary Celeste was an American brigantine merchant ship famous for having been discovered on 4 December 1872 in the Atlantic Ocean, unmanned and apparently abandoned (one lifeboat was missing), despite the fact that the weather was fine and her crew had been experienced and able seamen. The Mary Celeste was in seaworthy condition and still under sail heading toward the Strait of Gibraltar. She had been at sea for a month and had over six months’ worth of food and water on board. Her cargo was virtually untouched and the personal belongings of passengers and crew were still in place, including valuables. The crew was never seen or heard from again. Their disappearance is often cited as the greatest maritime mystery of all time.

The fate of her crew has been the subject of much speculation. Theories range from alcoholic fumes, to underwater earthquakes, to waterspouts, to paranormal explanations involving extraterrestrial life, unidentified flying objects (UFOs), sea monsters, and the phenomenon of the Bermuda Triangle, although the Mary Celeste is not known to have sailed through the Bermuda Triangle area. The Mary Celeste is often described as the archetypal ghost ship, since she was discovered derelict without any apparent explanation, and her name has become a synonym for similar occurrences.


The Mary Celeste was a 282-gross ton brigantine. She was built by the shipbuilders of Joshua Dewis in 1861 as the ship Amazon at the village of Spencer’s Island, Nova Scotia. She was the first of many large ships that were built in that small community. The Amazon was owned by a group of eight investors from Cumberland County and Kings County, Nova Scotia, led by the shipbuilder Joshua Dewis, and William Henry Bigalow, a local merchant. The Amazon was registered at the nearby Nova Scotia town of Parrsboro, the closest local port of registry.
The Amazon’s first captain, Robert McLellan, son of one of the owners, contracted pneumonia nine days after taking command, and he died at the very beginning of her maiden voyage. He was the first of three captains to die aboard her.John Nutting Parker, the next captain of the Amazon, struck a fishing boat, and had to steer her back to the shipyard for repairs. At the shipyard, a fire broke out in the middle of the ship. Her first trans-Atlantic crossing was also disastrous for her next captain, after she collided with another vessel in the English Channel near Dover, England. This resulted in the dismissal of the new captain. After this awkward beginning, the brigantine had several profitable and uneventful years under her Nova Scotian owners. She travelled to the West Indies, Central America and South America, and transported a wide range of cargoes. In 1867, the ship ran aground during a storm off Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. After she was salvaged, she was sold for $1,750 to Richard Haines of New York, and was repaired at a cost of $8,825.03. In 1868, she was transferred to the American registry, and the following year was renamed the Mary Celeste. The new owners’ intention was to take her across the Atlantic and make a profit trading with the Adriatic ports.


Jackon Pollock, known as Pollock, was born on on january the 28th in 1912. He was an influential American painter and a major figure in asbstract expressionist movement. He painted generally on large canevasses, so he had to walk on it. He used different technics. For example the pouring which consists in letting the painting flow continuously on the canvass. He uses tins with in it which filled the painting and drilled on it. The dripping lets appear different colours of the same spectrum. The action of painting is based on the movements of the body created by the artist. So the canvass represented emotions of the painter by the traits and splashes made by him. Pollock often used brushes for that. And finally, he also used the all cover, that is to say he often covered all the canvasses by the paintings.He had volatile personnality, and struggled with alcoholism most of his life. It’s because of that he died at the age of 44 in an alcohol-car accident. In his time, he wasn’t recognized for his paintings. He was the third wave of abstract’s painter to be recognize after his time. In 1945, he married with the artist Lee Kasner who became an important influence on his career and on his legacy.

The president of United States.

The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and promoting economic and financial modernization. Reared in a poor family on the western frontier, Lincoln was mostly self-educated. He became a country lawyer, an Illinois state legislator, and a one-term member of the United States House of Representatives, but failed in two attempts to be elected to the United States Senate.
On April 15, Lincoln called on all the states to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect Washington, and « preserve the Union », which, in his view, still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. This call forced the states to choose sides. Virginia declared its secession and was rewarded with the Confederate capital, despite the exposed position of Richmond so close to Union lines. North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas also voted for secession over the next two months. Secession sentiment was strong in Missouri and Maryland, but did not prevail; Kentucky tried to be neutral.

John Fitzgerald « Jack » Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
After military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boats PT-109 and PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, Kennedy represented Massachusetts’s 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. He was the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 4-+3, the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president. Kennedy is the only Catholic president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement, and early stages of the Vietnam War.
Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime, but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before a trial could take place. The FBI, the Warren Commission, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, with the HSCA allowing for the possibility of conspiracy based on disputed acoustic evidence. Today, Kennedy continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.


Addiction is defined as the continued use of a mood altering substance or behaviour despite adverse consequences. This can include, but is not limited to, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, exercise abuse, and gambling. Some defining characteristics of addiction include: impaired control over subtances/behaviour, preoccupation with substance/behaviour, continued use despite consequences, and denial. Physiological dependence occurs when the body has to adjust to the substance by incorporating the substance into its ‘normal’ functioning. Symptoms of withdrawal generally include but are not limited to anxiety, irritability, intense cravings for the substance, nausea, hallucinations, headaches, cold sweats, and tremors.

Drug Addiction :

Drug addiction is a dependence on an illegal drug or a medication. When you’re addicted, you may not be able to control your drug use and you may continue using the drug despite the harm it causes. Drug addiction can cause an intense craving for the drug. For many people, what starts as casual use leads to drug addiction. Drug addiction can cause serious, long-term consequences, including problems with physical and mental health, relationships, employment and the law. Drug habituation is a condition resulting from the repeated consumption of a drug. Its characteristics include a desire (but not a compulsion) to continue taking the drug for the sense of improved well-being.

Addiction to money :

As we can be addicted to drugs or alcohol, we can also be addicted to money. This dependence implies a concern at all times which can both lead to avarice as compulsive shopping.
An idea obsesses dependent person: to raise or spend his money. Addicts money feel sensations of pleasure, euphoria, excitement which make them lose the sense of proportion.
As with other addictions, addiction to money appear in people suffering from low self-esteem. They are not able to take a place among the other without being aggressive. Buying gives them the illusion of being someone who counts in the eyes of at least one person: the seller.

Addiction to Medicine :

We could talk of addiction when the person who takes some medication continues to take it outside the scope of limitation. She uses it whenever she’s stressed out, she increases the doses and continued despite the appearance of their medication-related harm. A paradoxical phenomenon sets in : when we start, the drug relieves the symptoms for which it was prescribed, once installed addiction, these symptoms come back in even more important even after taking the drug. The treatment has lost its effectiveness, but the person continues to take his medical drugs to miligate the effects of lack. Very often, the installation of this type of addiction is progressive and long passes unnoticed. The danger of the medication is underestimated in comparison to taking drugs or alcohol.

Alcohol Addiction :

Addiction is defined as the continued use of a mood altering substance or behaviour despite adverse consequences. Alcohol dependence is a psychiatric diagnostic describing an entity in which an individual uses alcohol despite significant areas of dysfunction, evidence of physical dependence, and/or related hardship, and also may cause stress and bipolar disorder. About 12% of American adults have had an alcohol dependence problem at some time in their life.The disorders connected to the excessive consumption of alcohol arise at the very variable moments according to the individuals.There is an assocation to help the people against alcohol like the « Alcoholics Anonymous » .

Sexual Addiction :

The concept of sexual dependence was introduced for the first time in the middle of 1970s in Boston by a member of Alcoholics Anonymous. It is the disease which can be sometimes, presented as an OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER. There is different addiction in the sex as the masturbation, the pornographic sites, sex shop, peep-show and the hypersexuality. « Sex-addict » has a loss of control and the pursuit(continuation) of the behavior in spite of the negative knowledge over the sex-addict. Sexs-addicts can lose their work, their spouse as well as any shape of social aspect.